Exascale refers to the ability to realize ${10}^{18}$ floating point operations per second. While this threshold has not yet been reached, many researchers are currently working to develop ways to create exaflop machines, and potential programming paradigms to use them efficiently.

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Literature references for modeling current and future energy costs of floating-point operations and data transfers

I am searching for the most important literature and slide references for modeling current and future energy costs of floating-point operations and data transfers across the CPU, memory, network, and ...
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What are the current obstacles to reaching exascale computing?

I have heard that one of the current goals in scientific computing is to surpass the exascale level by 2018 or so... After having passed the petascale a few years ago, one would think that the ...
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What programming paradigms should I be investing in if I want my code to run on petascale machines in the future?

It's pretty clear from a survey of the top500 that the industry is trending towards an exponential increase in processing cores. The largest supercomputers all use MPI for communication between ...