For optimization, from Wikipedia:
In computer science, metaheuristic designates a computational method that optimizes a problem by iteratively trying to improve a candidate solution with regard to a given measure of quality. Metaheuristics make few or no assumptions about the problem being optimized and can search very large spaces of candidate solutions. However, metaheuristics do not guarantee an optimal solution is ever found. Many metaheuristics implement some form of stochastic optimization.
Other terms having a similar meaning as metaheuristic, are: derivative-free, direct search, black-box, or indeed just heuristic optimizer. Several books and survey papers have been published on the subject.
I wonder how to tell whether an optimization method is metaheuristic or not? For example,
(1) Is the simplex method for linear programming metaheuristic?
(2) Are the majority of nonlinear programming methods such as gradient descent, Lagrangian multiplier method, penalty methods, Interior point methods (barrier methods), metaheuristic?
(3) Are all gradient-free methods, such as Nelder–Mead method or downhill simplex method, metaheuristic?
What are some optimization methods that are not metaheuristic?
More generally (going beyond optimization) for problem solving techniques, from Wikipedia:
Heuristic refers to experience-based techniques for problem solving, learning, and discovery. Where an exhaustive search is impractical, heuristic methods are used to speed up the process of finding a satisfactory solution. Examples of this method include using a rule of thumb, an educated guess, an intuitive judgment, or common sense.
In more precise terms, heuristics are strategies using readily accessible, though loosely applicable, information to control problem solving in human beings and machines.
I wonder how to understand the meaning of "heuristic"?
how can I tell whether a "problem solving,learning, and discovery" technique is heuristic or not?
What are some "problem solving,learning, and discovery" techniques that are not heuristic?
Thanks and regards!