It's common parlance to say that Linux is faster, and for good reasons. But as stated in the title, how much does choice of OS matter for performance of scientific computing code? For something things which the operating system is more directly involved (such as playing games or video rendering), sure there can be a difference. But if I run some codes in MATLAB, solve PDEs in Julia, or are doing some linear algebra on a GPU using CUDA: is there actually a measurable performance difference between Windows, MacOS, and Linux?
I am wondering if anyone has performed benchmarks to see if such a difference exists. Maybe differences exist when using some software like MATLAB because of differences in the compilers they use? Or maybe CUDA drivers are measurably faster for one OS than the other? Or do OS's sometimes interfere a lot like like the WDDM CUDA issue?
Note: I know there are other reasons for choosing an operating system which is beyond the scope of this question. I am specifically wondering about performance.