# Discretization of Laplacian with boundary conditions

I am trying to solve the equation below numerically for various functions $I(x)$:

$$\frac{\partial^2}{\partial x^2} G(x) + I(x)G(x) = 0$$

Subject to the boundary contitions:

$$\frac{\partial}{\partial x} G(x)\Big|_{x=0} = C_1$$ $$\frac{\partial}{\partial x} G(x)\Big|_{x=L} = C_2$$ $$\frac{\partial}{\partial x} G(x)\Big|_{x=x_0+\epsilon} - \frac{\partial}{\partial x} G(x)\Big|_{x=x_0-\epsilon} = 1$$

Where $x_0 \in [0,L]$, $\epsilon\to 0$, and $C_1$ and $C_2$ are given.

Normally, if there were no boundary conditions, I would discretize $[0,L]$ into $N$ individual units, then I would approximate $\frac{\partial^2}{\partial x^2}$ using the finite difference method yielding a $N\times N$ matrix. I would then add the discretized version of $I(x)$ as a matrix by multiplying by the identity $N\times N$ matrix, yielding:

$$\left( \begin{bmatrix} -1 & 1 & 0 & \dots & 0 & 0 \\ 1 & -2 & 1 & \dots & 0 & 0 \\ \vdots & \vdots & \vdots \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & \dots & -2 & 1 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & \dots & 1 & -1 \end{bmatrix} + \mathbb{1} \cdot \begin{bmatrix} I(x_1) \\ I(x_2) \\ \vdots \\ I(x_N) \\ \end{bmatrix} \right) \begin{bmatrix} G_0 \\ G_1 \\ \vdots \\ G_{N-1} \\ G_N \\ \end{bmatrix} = 0$$

Then finding $G$ is a matter of inverting the matrix on the left hand side.

My question: how do I incorporate the boundary conditions into he expression above? Should the derivative matrix (first matrix) change, or should the right hand side become a vector other than $0$? Is there a good reference for learning about how to numerically solve PDEs with weird boundary conditions?

• Personally, I would apply it separately rather than in the matrix. However, this isn't much of a physics question. It might be more appropriate for Mathematics, Computational Science or Stack Overflow. Commented Jan 19, 2017 at 22:33
• You're right. How do I transfer it? Or should I delete this one and post in the other?
– alexvas
Commented Jan 19, 2017 at 22:55
• You have to Flag is for moderator attention & request migration there Commented Jan 19, 2017 at 22:58
• My take on the question is in lectures 21.6 and 21.65 here: math.colostate.edu/~bangerth/videos.html Commented Jan 20, 2017 at 19:52

$u_{N-1}-2u_{i}+u_{i+1}$
• Thanks but this doesn't address the third condition: the discontinuity in the first derivative at some $x_0\in [0,L]$ Commented Jan 20, 2017 at 20:10