The 2014 paper "Iteration-Free Computation of Gauss--Legendre Quadrature Nodes and Weights" by I. Bogaert (https://doi.org/10.1137/140954969) contains the following expression in Appendix A:

Expression from the paper.

What is the meaning of the "LL" here? It is not defined in the body of the paper and it's such a commonly occurring character sequence that Googling for it has proven futile.

  • 4
    $\begingroup$ that may be just a typo. have you tried asking the author of the paper? his contact details are in the footnote on page 1. $\endgroup$
    – GoHokies
    Mar 16 '18 at 14:00
  • $\begingroup$ Maybe there was some \LL latex macro, but they forgot `\`? $\endgroup$
    – Kirill
    Mar 16 '18 at 15:09
  • 4
    $\begingroup$ This is corroborated by the preprint (biblio.ugent.be/publication/5683230/file/5683237.pdf), which does not contain the LL. (I refrain from commenting on the effect of publisher copy-editing on mathematical correctness and merely remark that a general strategy for such -- and similar -- cases is to try to find a preprint and see if it the formula is clearer there: a preprint is usually updated if serious mathematical typos are found in press, but a published paper is rarely corrected unless the author takes the blame.) $\endgroup$ Mar 16 '18 at 15:17
  • 2
    $\begingroup$ Just as a confirmation, another "post-pring" I found was on ResearchGate: researchgate.net/publication/… where the LL symbol does not appear. $\endgroup$
    – Anton Menshov
    Mar 16 '18 at 21:15

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