# Need help applying Implicit Eulers Method together with Newtons Method on Burgers' Equation

From the inviscid Burgers' equation: $$\frac{\partial u}{\partial t}+u\frac{\partial u}{\partial x} = 0$$, I get the discretization $$\frac{u_i^{n+1}-u_i^n}{\Delta t}+\frac{(u_i^{n+1})^2-(u_{i-1}^n)^2}{\Delta x}=0$$. Having the starting conditions $$u_0(x)=sin(\pi x)$$, $$x\in[0,1]$$, I wish to plot $$u$$ after $$n$$ timesteps. However, I cannot seem to get it to work and would appreciate any help. Python code:

import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import scipy as py
from scipy.sparse.linalg import gmres

#x
x0 = 0 #x min
xe = 1 #x max
N = 100 #Nodes
dx = (xe-x0)/N
x = py.linspace(x0,xe,N)

#t
t0 = 0 #time
te = 1 #max time
dt = 0.0001 #timestep
M = int((te-t0)/dt) #timesteps

#u
u0 = py.sin(py.pi*x)

ts = 50

def EulerMethod(ustart):
U = np.zeros((N,M))
U[:,0] = ustart
t=t0
for i in range(N-1): #one step Euler forward
U[0,1] = 0
U[i+1,1] = U[i+1,0] - (dt/dx)*(U[i+1,0]**2-U[i,0]**2)
for n in range(ts):
U[:,n+2] = NewtonMethod(U[:,n+1],U[:,n]) #Eulers implicit method with Newtons Method
t=t+dt
return U

def NewtonMethod(u,c):
#c = u_n
for i in range(3):
F = np.zeros((N,1))
J = np.zeros((N,N))
J[N-1,N-1] = 1/dt + u[N-1]/dx
F = (u - c)/dt + (u**2)/2*dx
for j in range(N-1):
J[j,j] = 1/dt + u[j]/dx
J[j+1,j] = 1/dt + u[j]/dx
F[j+1] = (u[j+1] - c[j+1])/dt + (u[j+1]**2 - u[j]**2)/2*dx
du = gmres(J,-F)
u = u + du
return u

UM = EulerMethod(u0)
plt.plot(x,UM[:,ts])

• I would suggest writing out the math of what you are trying to accomplish so that we can read it. Because from a glance at your code it looks a lot like you're trying to run both forward and implicit Euler at the same time, but your forward Euler is also implemented incorrectly as far as I can tell. – EMP Apr 14 '19 at 14:02
• I will try to reformulate it better. Forward Euler is just supposed to be done the first step and I have fixed that now. Thanks for your feedback. – Mathias Apr 14 '19 at 16:54
• does it work now? – EMP Apr 14 '19 at 18:30
• As something of a side note, your space discretisation in your first sentence isn't a consistent one. $(a^2_i -a^2_{i-1})/\Delta x$ is a one sided approximation of $\frac{d a^2}{dx} = 2a\frac{da}{dx}$. I also wouldn't call the time discretisation you've written implicit Euler, but rather some sort of time splitting method. – origimbo Apr 14 '19 at 18:50
• Yea, you also do not need to initialize with a forward Euler step if you're doing 1st order backward Euler. – EMP Apr 15 '19 at 0:07