I'm interested in how digital beamforming works and I can not find an answer for a lot of time. I googled, asked teammates, and couldn't get it.
Let me describe my question.
From my understanding, the beam means the area in the space where waves from a number of antenna elements are in superposition which means, in turn, sum of amplitudes. Those waves must be in-phase for that and the "phase" here belongs to the carrier HF wave. Payload wave (envelope) is NOT changed here and it is obviously not needed for such beamforming.
If it's so I can imagine how analogue beamforming acts by an appropriate shifting of phase of HF carrier.
In digital beamforming, HF carrier phase is not manipulated and all antenna elements should radiate the beam in the straight direction in this case. The theory says, that by applying some vector to the payload (BaseBand signal) the beam can be steered.
This is what I can not understand. How manipulating of payload can change the direction of the beam without manipulating the HF carrier (so, no phase shifting of the carrier)?
As I said earlier the beam from my understanding is the area where carriers from different antenna elements are in-phase.