In my courses on numerical analysis, I have been taught that the main and principal motivation for preconditioning linear systems of equations is to increase the convergence rate of iterative solvers for that LSE.
But, is there any effect on the precision of the computed solution?
I can remember a result on the precision of computed solution of Gaussian elimination, which can be found in Matrix Computations by Golub and Van Loan (p. 122). The condition number (with respect to some particular norm) does indeed affect the precision of the numerical solution computed by that algorithm.
One might expect that something similar holds for solutions obtained by, e.g., Conjugate Gradients. I think that I have observed this in a computational experiment. When I had the Conjugate gradient method run on an unpreconditioned system for a (long) time until some stopping criterion was met, the computed solution still displayed a high residual. So I wonder whether lower condition numbers not only lead to lower run-times, but also to a lower residual (or error) in the computed solution. Note that this is necessarily a question of numerical stability, which requires that we work in inprecise arithmetics.
(I have asked the same question on math.SE, but I think that this site might be more appropriate.)