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Questions tagged [complexity]

Relating to the level of difficulty of a calculation or the asymptotic running time of an algorithm.

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9 votes
1 answer
1k views

Why is it that SVD routines on nearly square matrices run significantly faster than if the matrix was highly non square?

In Python / Matlab, if you run a routine for SVD on a significantly non-square matrix, X, such as X.shape = (2,15000) you will ...
4 votes
1 answer
107 views

Algorithm about finding a combination that the sum is closest to a given number

Given a matrix $P\in \mathbb{R}^{n*k}$ (just for ease of notation, no matrix or linear algebra is actually needed; bound to $(0,1)$ if necessary), select one number from each row and compute the sum. ...
1 vote
1 answer
162 views

Space complexity of a semidefinite program

What is the space complexity of a semidefinite program (SDP)? What is the answer to the same question for convex optimization problems in general?
8 votes
5 answers
29k views

Computational Complexity of 2D Convolution

I am using image filtering for an image processing algorithm I'm developing. I'm using a predefined Matlab function to do the convolution, but I'd like to know what the computational complexity is for ...
8 votes
2 answers
1k views

How does a Sparse Direct Solver know about dimensionality of a problem being solved?

It is claimed that the time and memory complexities of sparse direct solver are $O(N^2)$ and $O(N^{4/3})$ for 3D problems and $O(N^{1.5})$ and $O(N \log N)$ for 2D, respectively. But how does a ...
0 votes
0 answers
234 views

Complexity of Branch-and-cut algorithm in terms of "Big O"

How can I compute the Big O complexity of the Branch and cut algorithm? I am solving an integer linear program using MOSEK that includes $M$ binary variables, but I do not know how to calculate the ...
0 votes
2 answers
287 views

Single Precision a x plus y (SAXPY) terminology

I've been reading books which refers to vector update operations of the form: y := y + ax, where y and x are vector variables and a is a scalar as SAXPY. I understand ax plus y part, but why "single ...
5 votes
1 answer
353 views

Complexity of recovering all roots of a polynomial

Given a polynomial of degree n and a list of putative roots $\{r_i\}_{i=1}^{n}$, we can verify that all the putative roots are indeed correct by $n$ applications of Horner's method. Hence verifying ...
7 votes
1 answer
362 views

How does the number of function calls in BFGS scale with the dimensionality of space?

Question Is there any estimate for the scaling of the number of function calls in BFGS-optimization with the dimensionality of the search space? Specifically I am assuming a (free) expression for the ...
0 votes
0 answers
75 views

Eigen-decomposition one eigenpair by one eigenpair?

Is it possible to conduct an Eigen-decomposition of a matrix one eigenpair by one eigenpair? And related to this question, what is the time complexity of truncated eigendecomposition? I am trying (...
6 votes
1 answer
714 views

Poisson solver on unstructured mesh

For the 2D Poisson equation, there exist on finite-difference mesh, some code taking $O(n \log(n))$ operations to solve it on a mesh with $n$ nodes. They rely on Fast Fourier Transform or Block Cyclic ...
4 votes
1 answer
91 views

Worst Case complexity of a search engine algorithm

Computer make it possible to find information in large databases. However, the results are often too large to be returned in their entirety to the user who requests them. Computer therefore sort the ...
2 votes
2 answers
129 views

Time complexity analysis

I want to know the time complexity of following code Say I have a list unique_element[] There is an array which contain elements {4,5,2,4,7,8,1,5,9,8,1} Now as per my code I want to find out the ...
0 votes
1 answer
66 views

Is there a unit of measure for computational complexity; through quantum computers? [closed]

I'm concerned with trying to determine whether the same computational processes on a Turing computable algorithm can be ascertained for a quantum computer in some form of actual 'metric' for how many ...
8 votes
2 answers
7k views

Why are log and exp considered 'expensive' computations in ML?

In many resources/videos I see comments being made along the lines of "and we can see here that we have a logarithm/exponential so this will be an expensive computation to make." (such as ...
0 votes
0 answers
71 views

Comparison of computational complexities of MD versus MC simulations

In my humble understanding MD simulations of systems with short-range(like LJ interactions) and long-range(electrostatic) has a computational complexity $O(N . log(N))$. What will be the computational ...
2 votes
1 answer
3k views

Runtime of Gaussian elimination/row reduction on a rectangular $m \times n$ matrix

The runtime of Gaussian elimination on an $n \times n$ matrix is $O(n^3)$. What is the runtime on an $m \times n$ matrix? I am taking Gaussian elimination to mean putting the matrix in reduced row ...
1 vote
1 answer
156 views

Complexity of solving an image differential linear system

Define an "image differential linear system" as a linear system $A\mathbf{x}=\mathbf{b}$ wherein $\mathbf{x}$ contains the ($\mathbb{R}$) pixels of an image and each row of $A$ constrains ...
1 vote
1 answer
280 views

Asymptotic complexity of fixed-rank SVD

According to the Wikipedia article on Singular Value Decomposition, the asymptotic complexity of computing the SVD of an arbitrary m×n matrix M with m>n by the popular Householder QR methods is O(...
2 votes
1 answer
323 views

Diagonalization of Hermitian matrices vs Unitary matrices

What are the general algorithms used for diagonalization of large Hermitian matrices and Unitary matrices? ($>5000 \times 5000$) LAPACK seems to diagonalize Hermitian matrices almost 20 times as ...
0 votes
0 answers
171 views

Time complexity of derivation, gradient,differential, jacobian matrix

what is the time complexity of gradient $\nabla_{f}$ using the $\mathcal O$-notation? what is the time complexity of jacobian matrix using the $\mathcal O$-notation? who knows some references to ...
1 vote
1 answer
994 views

Time complexity of numerical finite differences

I have a function $f:\mathbb R^N\to \mathbb R$ and I would like to compute all the partial derivatives of $f$ w.r.t. the $N$ input. What is the computational complexity using the (ones-sided) finite ...
1 vote
0 answers
50 views

Most scalable distributed consensus mechanism based on message complexity? [closed]

One of the most challenges in distributed consensus mechanisms is both time complexity and message complexity. For example, PBFT message complexity is O(n^2) that ...
0 votes
0 answers
60 views

Which class does this NP problem belong to?

Suppose $n$ inputs ($x_1, x_2, x_3, \cdots, x_n$) can take on any of $m$ values, say $\{ k_1, k_2, k_3, \cdots, k_m \}$, and that there is a cost function $y = f(x_1, x_2, x_3, \cdots, x_n)$. For ...
5 votes
1 answer
4k views

Comparing Algorithmic complexity, ODE Solvers (Big O)

I am currently using the following three methods to solve differential equations: 4th order Runge Kutta Method Euler Method Internal scipy methods: ...
3 votes
1 answer
437 views

Implementation of a $O(n \log(n))$ method to compute eigenvalues of real symmetric tridiagonal matrices

I just came upon this paper, which details the implementation of a fast method to get eigenvalues of tridiagonal symmetric matrices : Coakley, Ed S.; Rokhlin, Vladimir, A fast divide-and-conquer ...
3 votes
0 answers
145 views

What is the computational cost of using complex numbers in contrast to real numbers in matrix operations, e.g. $LU$ or $LDL^T$ factorizations? [duplicate]

I am curious about how much one loses in terms of computational cost when complex numbers are used instead of real numbers? I guess the number of floating-point operations and memory doubles, but I ...
1 vote
1 answer
101 views

Flops of the computation of symmetric matrix $A$ to the power of $p$

What is the cost in terms of flops for the computation of $A$ to the power of $p$, where $p$ is a positive integer and $A \in \mathbb R^{n\times n}$ is a symmetric matrix?
5 votes
1 answer
228 views

Is there an efficient algorithm for calculation of continued fraction expansion from decimal digits?

Suppose to calculate the continued fraction expansion of $\pi$, the common-sense algorithm would be to take the decimal part, perform inversion, which will give the next term as integer part, and the ...
0 votes
2 answers
288 views

What is an instance (precisely) in computational complexity?

I am trying to understand the notion of reduction of a problem to another problem. As it is known this has huge impact on classifying the complexity of a problem. The definition of reduction involves ...
3 votes
1 answer
203 views

Big Theta Complexity of Gaussian Elimination using Complete Pivoting

I already know the Big O for partial pivoting is $O(n^3)$ and remain the same for complete pivoting. I also know the big theta complexity for partial pivoting is $2/3 n^3$ I would like to know the ...
28 votes
6 answers
6k views

How can the gravitational n-body problem be solved in parallel?

How can the gravitational n-body problem be solved numerically in parallel? Is precision-complexity tradeoff possible? How does precision influence the quality of the model?
2 votes
1 answer
468 views

Calculate amount of FLOPs for an eigenvalue problem solver

I have 2 complex, non-symmetric, matrices $A_{1000\times1000}$, $B_{1000\times1000}$ and I am using Matlab to get it's eigenvalues (functions like eig or eigs). Both matrices are different - one is ...
0 votes
0 answers
21 views

Cost functions to judge time/memory/accuracy tradeoffs

I am working on an interesting algorithm: Its absolute error is exponential in a parameter $j \in \mathbb{N}$, and for a given $j$, I have complete freedom to choose between an $\mathcal{O}(1)$ time-...
2 votes
2 answers
827 views

Asymptotic Complexity of Gaussian Elimination using Complete Pivoting

I would like to know the algorithm asymptotic complexity with Complete Pivoting. With partial pivoting, it is known to be $O(n^3)$. Is it the same for complete pivoting?
13 votes
3 answers
5k views

Is the Thomas algorithm the fastest way to solve a symmetric diagonally dominant sparse tridiagonal linear system

I am wondering if the Thomas algorithm is the fastest way (provably?) to solve a symmetric diagonally dominate sparse tridiagonal system in terms of algorithmic complexity (not looking for ...
3 votes
1 answer
3k views

Computational complexity of Newton's method

the classical Newton's method for non-linear systems of equations is $x_{k+1} =x_k-J_F(x_n)^{-1} F(x_n)$. In pratice, rather than compute the inverse of the Jacobian matrix, one solves the systems $...
10 votes
2 answers
9k views

Integer operations vs floating point operations

I have been working with an algorithm, which uses additions of floating point vectors, (sparse matrix of floats)x(dense vector of floats) dot products I recently found out that I can get the same ...
2 votes
1 answer
230 views

Convergence rate and complexity for convex minimization problem

In Yurii Nesterov's Introductory Lectures on Convex Optimization, there is a description of the rate of convergence and corresponding upper bound for the analytical complexity of a minimization ...
2 votes
1 answer
201 views

Probability of reconstructing a word using c substrings from a random sample

Consider a voice recording split into it's phonemes as our sample $S=(s_1,...,s_k) \in \Omega = P^k$. The number of phonemes is $|P| = 40$. Then I have a word $w = (w_1,...,w_n) \in P^n$. I want to ...
1 vote
1 answer
1k views

System of ordinary differential equations - time complexity of initial value problem

I am interested in knowing what the time complexity is (in Big-$\mathcal O$ notation) for solving system of $N$ differential equations? I am using ode15s in ...
3 votes
1 answer
3k views

Time complexity of $l_2$-norm of a vector

What is the complexity (in flops, floating-point operations) of taking the $l_2$-norm of vector $\mathbf{v}\in\mathbb{R}^n$ (or $\mathbf{v}\in\mathbb{C}^n$ if a difference exists). We have the ...
1 vote
1 answer
444 views

Big-O Complexity of Gini Index

What will be the complexity of finding Gini Index of a sorted vector of $N$ values, which is defined as: $Gini(\mathbf{x})=1-2\sum_{k=1}^N \frac{\mathbf{x}(k)}{\Vert\mathbf{x}\Vert_1}(\frac{N-k+.5}{N}...
6 votes
1 answer
249 views

Efficient algorithm for a matrix product

Recall that a unit lower triangular matrix $L\in\mathbb{R}^{n\times n}$ is a lower triangular matrix with diagonal elements $e_i^{T}L e_i = \lambda_{ii} = 1$. An elementary unit lower triangular ...
11 votes
2 answers
7k views

How does the computational cost of an mpi_allgather operation compare with a gather/scatter operation?

I'm working on a problem that can be parallelized by using a single mpi_allgather operation or one mpi_scatter and one mpi_gather operation. These operations are called within a while loop, so they ...
0 votes
1 answer
142 views

finding the growth rate from numerical data

Suppose i have a bunch of 10 data points and i have to conclude whether the increase is $n^2,n^3,\cdots,2^n,3^n, e^n,\cdots$. For example i have the image:- Now the increase is either polynomial or ...
2 votes
2 answers
70 views

Efficient Representation of (spatially sparse) spatial time series

Background I have a huge dataset consisting of points (on a plane) together with a timestamp for each point. This is a collection of car GPS measures, giving us the location (latitude/longitude) of ...
5 votes
0 answers
540 views

Optimisation of matrix exponential

I have a 7000x7000 sparse matrix (scipy), which I want to exponentiate. I've tried using scipy.sparse.linalg.expm, which works quite well for smaller matrices (takes a few seconds for a 1000x1000 ...
2 votes
1 answer
203 views

Regarding impractical usage of direct solvers of linear systems [closed]

Since the computational complexity of direct elimilation methods for solving linear systems is $O(n^3)$, it's not practical when the number of dofs is large. But how large would you call it a large ...
1 vote
1 answer
100 views

Expected runtime complexity of repeated closest Point Pair search

I have to vectors $X_1$ and $X_2$ with 3 dimensional points $p_i$ and $p_j$ contained. As long as $X_1$ is not empty, I want to find the closest pair $p_i$ and $p_j$. The point $p_i$ of this pair I ...