Questions tagged [linear-algebra]

Questions on the algorithmic/computational aspects of linear algebra, including the solution of linear systems, least squares problems, eigenproblems, and other such matters.

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7
votes
1answer
558 views

full rank update to cholesky decomposition for multivariate normal distribution

This question is a specialization of full rank update to cholesky decomposition, to which I hope to get a more positive answer. When calculating the minus log of the multivariate normal distribution, ...
2
votes
1answer
80 views

Efficiently compute a projection matrix from Householders reflectors

Let $A \in \mathbb{R}^{m \times n}$ where $m \geq n$. Let $B$ and $\tau$ be the result of applying LAPACK's dgeqrfp method (R on the upper right triangle, and the ...
5
votes
3answers
886 views

implicit vs. explicit domain decomposition methods

I've been working on a finite element code on unstructured methods, which I've parallelized using the Schur complement method. Here's a summary of how I did it: Assign each triangle of the mesh to a ...
-2
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0answers
30 views

C++ code Thomas algorithm for solving a pentadiagonal Ax=b

I am looking to solve Ax=b for x where A is pentadiagonal square matrix (elements on the upper and lower diagonals can however equal to zero) and x, b two vectors of the same size. I used the code ...
0
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2answers
125 views

How to solve system of equations with almost-zero determinant?

I have a system of equations that I am trying to solve. In matrix form, it's written as $$x(I - S) = b.$$ I am solving for $x$, where $I$ is the identity matrix and $S$ is a matrix where each column ...
3
votes
1answer
103 views

A notion of resolution in inverse problems

Suppose I have a linear inverse problem of the form: \begin{align} Ax=b \end{align} I would like to reconstruct $x$ from the measurement $b$ via the objective $$\min_x\{\vert\vert Ax-b\vert\vert^2_2+\...
5
votes
1answer
186 views

Symmetric matrix which satisfies conditions of the form $v_i^T X v_i = 0$

I want to solve an underdetermined system of linear equations $A x = b$ with $A \in \mathbb{R}^{n \times r^2}, x \in \mathbb{R}^{r^2}, b \in \mathbb{R}^n$. The matrix $A$ has the following additional ...
6
votes
1answer
197 views

Efficiently computing $e^{tX}$ for many different values of $t$

Given an anti-Hermitian and sparse matrix $X$, I am using Python (NumPy and SciPy) to compute the matrix exponential $f(t) := e^{tX}$ for many values of $t$. The method I am currently using is to ...
1
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0answers
56 views

Upper bound on condition number in linear preconditioning

I'm studying iterative methods for solving linear system, and I find the following setting in Wikipedia: Consider a matrix splitting $A = M-N$, where $A,M,N$ are all symmetric and positive definite ...
2
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1answer
92 views

Numerical Linear Algebra: When to use Direct methods versus iterative methods to solve a linear system - for PDEs in particular

I am reading the Chapra and Canale book on numerical methods, and was working through the chapters on solving linear systems. Now the book goes through direct methods including Gaussian Elimination, ...
1
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0answers
61 views

Given an unpivoted form of Aasen's algorithm, how does one add pivoting?

I've implemented the version of Aasen's algorithm described in the book Matrix Computations 4th Edition. The version there doesn't have pivoting. The book's description of how to add pivoting is a bit ...
2
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1answer
56 views

How do I extract the output of Aasen's algorithm into a usable form?

I tried implementing the algorithm in Aasen's 1971 paper on factorizing symmetric indefinite matrices. I've translated the code verbatim from Algol into Python, and I used the test example given in ...
2
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1answer
81 views

Complexity of solving an image differential linear system

Define an "image differential linear system" as a linear system $A\mathbf{x}=\mathbf{b}$ wherein $\mathbf{x}$ contains the ($\mathbb{R}$) pixels of an image and each row of $A$ constrains ...
6
votes
1answer
159 views

Parallelize Scipy iterative methods for linear equation systems(bicgstab) in Python

I need to solve linear equations system Ax = b, where A is a sparse CSR matrix with size 500 000 x 500 000. I'am using scipy.bicgstab and it takes almost 10min to solve this system on my PC and I need ...
0
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0answers
57 views

How to make a directed graph symmetric?

Say I have a directed graph given as an adjacency matrix $A$ in CSR format represented by the arrays ia (row indexes) and ja (...
3
votes
2answers
106 views

Equations that are easier to verify than to solve?

Are there interesting examples of (systems) of equations where it is known to be harder to find a solution (in terms of scaling with respect to problem size) than verifying a provided solution for ...
1
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1answer
76 views

Range of a matrix from its complete orthogonal decomposition

In this StackOverflow answer, @Gokul has shown how to get a basis of the kernel of a matrix with the help of the 'Eigen' function CompleteOrthogonalDecomposition. ...
4
votes
1answer
72 views

Trace of inverse from LU decomposition

Given an LU decomposition of $A\in \mathbb{R}^{n\times n}$, is there a way to compute $\operatorname{trace}(A^{-1})$ with lower complexity than that of the inversion ($O(n^3)$ in practice)? This ...
1
vote
1answer
93 views

Factorization of cubic spline interpolation matrix

In cubic spline interpolation, we use the set of knots and function values $(x_i,y_i),i=1,...,n$ to construct a (tridiagonal) system of equations for the unknowns $\sigma_i$: $$ h_{i-1}\sigma_{i-1} + ...
4
votes
0answers
52 views

Efficient computation of marginalized multivariate normal likelihood

In general,if we know that the marginal Gaussian distribution for some variable $\textbf{x}$ and a conditional Gaussian distribution for some $\textbf{y}|\textbf{x}$ of the forms: $$p(\textbf{x}) = \...
0
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0answers
47 views

Formula for overdetermined logical matrix pseudoinverse not requiring SVD?

In https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:YI_%3D_PI.png, you will find a formula-based solution for an overdetermined logical matrix pseudoinverse. This simple formula gives the same result as the ...
3
votes
0answers
39 views

Choice of iterative solver for a sparse asymmetric matrix with symmetric structure

I have a sparse $nxn$ matrix A with pretty interesting structure. It has a block structure with symmetric structure but asymmetric blocks. Expressed mathematically $A_{jk} = A_{kj}$ but $A_{jk} \neq ...
2
votes
1answer
83 views

Diagonalization of Hermitian matrices vs Unitary matrices

What are the general algorithms used for diagonalization of large Hermitian matrices and Unitary matrices? ($>5000 \times 5000$) LAPACK seems to diagonalize Hermitian matrices almost 20 times as ...
2
votes
0answers
81 views

Algorithm for computing inner products multiple times

I am taking a computational linear algebra course and i got stuck during a homework problem concerning the computation of inner products. I am supposed to compute the inner product:$$\mathrm{a}_{\...
4
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0answers
61 views

Optimize linear equation using inner products and subject to L1 norm

I have a linear system of the form $A x = b$ where $A$ and $b$ are known, $A$ is "square", and $\lvert b \rvert_1 = \lvert x \rvert_1 = 1$. Unfortunately, I am working in a framework that ...
2
votes
1answer
82 views

Efficient change of basis real positive definite symmetric matrix

I need to optimize a code where the most performance critical part is doing a 'change of basis', in other words it is an unitary similarity transformation on a big real positive definite symmetric ...
0
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0answers
65 views

Ill-conditioned stiffness matrix

I am writting a Fem code in c++ for a 2d plane stress model. My question is regarding the assembly stiffness matrix.I noticed that some elements of the matrix are not exactly zero but insted a number ...
1
vote
1answer
82 views

Jacobi iterative method

I'm using Jacobi iterative method for finding eigenvalue and eigenvector for hermitian or symmetric matrix. Eigenvectors corresponding to eigenvalues are not exact. The third eigenvector is totally ...
5
votes
0answers
119 views

Inverse problem with uncertain forward operator

Suppose I want to solve a linear inverse problem. In this example we take a convolution with the kernel: $$\frac{1}{(y^2+z^2)^{3/2}}$$ We only take a fixed $z$ for the computation and convolve with ...
1
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0answers
25 views

Multiplying by E[xy'] where only some statistics of xy' are known

(cross-posted on crossvalidated) For random variable $(x,y)$ in $\mathbb{R}^{d}\times \mathbb{R}^{d}$ and vector $v \in \mathbb{R}^d$, I need to perform the following matrix vector multiplication. $$T(...
4
votes
1answer
127 views

When is it easy to invert a sparse matrix?

(Crossposted on cstheory.SE) When is it easy to invert a sparse matrix? Specifically, I'm wondering about the cases in which matrix inversion has similar cost to sparse matrix multiplication, hence ...
2
votes
1answer
115 views

Ill-condioned Linear System and Gaussian Elimination

Suppose that I have a linear system $Ax=b$ such that $A$ is ill-conditioned. Can I say that it is dangerous to find a solution with Gaussian Elimination for this system, or does there exist some class ...
2
votes
1answer
41 views

Solving MX=N where M is structured as a Gaussian 4th-moment tensor

I'm looking to solve numerically the following equation for $(d,d)$ variable $X$, in Einstein summation notation $$M_{ijkl}X_{kl}=N_{ij}$$ Where $M$ is a $(d,d,d,d)$ 4th-moment tensor of random ...
3
votes
2answers
160 views

1D FEM for nonlinear diffusion coefficient

I want to solve with linear finite elements the equation $$\partial_t u = \partial_{x}(a(u)\partial_xu)$$ in the domain $t \in [0,1]$ and $x \in [-L,L]$. Here $a(u)$ is just a function of $u$. ...
3
votes
1answer
95 views

Efficient solution to a structured symmetric linear system with condition number estimation

I have a real-valued linear system $Hx = b$ where $H$ is symmetric matrix** (not necessarily positive/negative definite) with a very particular structure: $$ H = \begin{bmatrix} D && B \\ B^T &...
0
votes
0answers
45 views

Norm estimates if adjoints can't be computed

Assume that you have two linear maps $A$ and $V$. For a given $x$ (of appropriate dimension) you can compute $Ax$ numerically, and for any $y$ (of appropriate dimension) you can calculate $V^Ty$ ...
7
votes
2answers
334 views

Does right-hand side influence convergence rate of a Krlylov subspace method?

Consider general system $Ax=b$. Does convergence of the Krylov subspace methods depend on actual vector $b$ assuming the initial guess is zero? I mean such factors as the locality of the source (with ...
6
votes
1answer
563 views

Cheap recalculation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors for a low-rank update of the matrix

Suppose I have a correlation matrix, $A$, and I already have the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of this matrix. For a given vector, $\mathbf{\mathit{v}}$, I want to calculate the eigenvalues and ...
3
votes
1answer
78 views

Runtime of Gaussian elimination/row reduction on an $m \times n$ matrix

The runtime of Gaussian elimination on an $n \times n$ matrix is $O(n^3)$. What is the runtime on an $m \times n$ matrix? I am taking Gaussian elimination to mean putting the matrix in reduced row ...
13
votes
1answer
413 views

Inverse problem in linear ODE

I have a linear ordinary differential equation (ODE) with a system matrix with constant coefficients: $$\dot{y}(t) = \mathcal{A}\; y(t), \quad y(0) = y_0$$ with $y(t) \in \mathbb{R}^{n \times 1}$ and $...
35
votes
18answers
9k views

Good examples of “two is easy, three is hard” in computational sciences

I recently encountered a formulation of the meta-phenomenon: "two is easy, three is hard" (phrased this way by Federico Poloni), which can be described, as follows: When a certain problem is ...
1
vote
1answer
82 views

Frobenius norm of a binary matrix

In term of the mathematical distance measurement, What is the significance of a Frobenius norm for a binary matrix?
1
vote
1answer
53 views

How to optimize nuclear norm subject to positive semidefinite constraints?

For finite dimensional symmetric positive semidefinite matrices $A$ and $B$, I would like to solve \begin{align}&\min |X - A|_1 \\ &\text{subject to}\\ &X \preceq B \\ &0 \preceq X\...
8
votes
5answers
498 views

Checking singularity of a matrix

Suppose that we don't know $n \times n$ matrix $A$ explicitly but we are only able to compute products $Ax$ where $x$ is a column vector with $n$ elements. Is there an algorithm to determine whether $...
0
votes
0answers
69 views

Derivative-free ill-conditioned non-linear least squares

I am looking for a package which can solve (non-linear) least squares problems without the use of derivatives (because of an expensive model), but which also deals with ill-conditioning well (such as ...
27
votes
11answers
8k views

Robust algorithm for $2 \times 2$ SVD

What is a simple algorithm for computing the SVD of $2 \times 2$ matrices? Ideally, I'd like a numerically robust algorithm, but I'll like to see both simple and not-so-simple implementations. C code ...
1
vote
3answers
127 views

How to determine global stiffness matrix is constrained or not

Background In solid fem, we often solve $$\mathbf{Ku}=\mathbf{p}$$ where $\mathbf{K}$ is global stiffness matrix, $\mathbf{u}$ is displacement, $\mathbf{p}$ is global load vector. If displacement not ...
4
votes
2answers
1k views

Discrete-time Algebraic Riccati Equation (DARE) solver in C++

I need to use a Discrete-time Algebraic Riccati Equation (DARE) solver for an embedded controller (with limited processing power) in a research project and sadly, I can't find any implementation of it ...
1
vote
1answer
208 views

Method to solve linear, first order ODE of generalized matrix matrix form

The equation and its meaning: Consider two sets $(A)_{l=0,...,m_a},$,$(B)_{l=0,...,m_b}$ of hermitian matrices and a set of positive semidefinite matrices $(C)_{l=0,...,m_c}$. Each matrix has the ...
2
votes
1answer
96 views

Efficient projection of a vector onto matrix kernel

Given an $m \times n$ matrix $A$ and a vector $x\in\mathbb R^n$, with $m<n$, what's an efficient way of computing the projection of $x$ onto the kernel of $A$?

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